Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
|Géosciences Paris Sud
Image processing for remote sensing applications
Reliable spatial information can be difficult to obtain in remote sensing applications because of errors present in the metadata of images taken with space probes. We have surveyed several methods and designed a pipeline to address this problem on disk-resolved images of Europa taken with New Horizons' LOng Range Reconnaissance Imager, Galileo's Solid State Imager and Voyager's Imaging Science Subsystem. We correct for errors in the spacecraft position, pointing and the target's attitude by comparing them to the same reference i.e. simulated images from an image renderer using the same texture. We also address ways to correct for distortion prior to any metadata consideration. Finally, we propose a vectorised method to easily project image pixel onto an ellipsoid target and compute the coordinates and geometry of observation at each intercept point. This work should be applicable to any other target and imager.
|Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Dept. Space and climate physics, University College London
Application of the CASP-GO processing chain to the retrieval of 3D information of lunar landing site candidates
Maxim Chernetskiy, Yu Tao, Alistair Francis and Jan-Peter Muller
Accurate, high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are essential information for landing site selection for robotic and human exploration. These DEMs are used for planetary geographic information systems, for the creation of hazard avoidance zone maps and many other applications. Previously DEM retrieval based on the Co-registration Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) Gotcha Optimised (CASP-GO) was demonstrated on stereo data of Mars .
CASP-GO is an automated DEM processing chain for Mars, lunar and Earth Observation stereo data including the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 6m Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) 25cm stereo-data as well as for the Earth ASTER 18m. CASP-GO uses a tie-point based multi-resolution image co-registration, combined with Gotcha sub-pixel refinement and densification. It is based on a combination of the ASP and an adaptive least squares correlation and region growing matcher called Gotcha (Gruen-Otto-Chau) . CASP-GO was successfully applied to produce more than 5000 DTMs of Mars  and a webGIS system  was built for their visualisation (http://www.i-Mars.eu/web-GIS).
This work employs CASP-GO to obtain DEMs of a candidate human exploration lunar landing site, from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) data and other stereo orbital assets. CASP-GO is applied to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC-NAC) for obtaining DEM and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) for validation. Using CASP-GO with LROC allows us to obtain DEM with <1m spatial resolution which is substantially higher than 60m resolution of LOLA and Selene  and ChangE’2 at 20m .
In order to automate the selection of stereo-pair candidates, we modify Python code that was previously used in order to generate high-resolution global maps of derived properties on the Moon. For example, the overlapping observation areas of multiple instruments, or the maximum time difference between two images. It allows for efficient metadata queries on shapefiles, and by combining the products’ metadata with quantities calculated from SPICE kernels (e.g. camera pointing angles), we can find all potential stereo pairs over a given region.
The research leading to these results is receiving funding from the UK Space Agency Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation under OVERPaSS project grant number RP10G0435C206.Partial funding was also obtained from the UKSA Aurora programme (2018-2021) under grant no. ST/S001891/1.
1. Tao, Y.; Muller, J. P.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Xiong, S.-T.; Putri, A. R. D.; Walter, S. H. G.; Veitch-Michaelis, J.; Yershov, V. Massive Stereo-based DTM Production for Mars on Cloud Computers. Planetary Space Science 2018, 154, 30–58.
2. Shin, D.; Muller, J.-P. Progressively weighted affine adaptive correlation matching for quasi-dense 3D reconstruction. Pattern Recognition 2012, 45, 3795–3809.
3. Walter, S. H. G.; Muller, J. P.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Tao, Y.; Gwinner, K.; Putri, A. R. D.; Kim, J. R.; Steikert, R.; vanGasselt, S.; Michael, G. G.; Watson, G.; Schreiner, B. P. The Web-based Interactive Mars Analysis and Research System for the iMars project. Earth and Space Science 2018, 1–32.
4. Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Haruyama, J.; Smith, D. E. A new lunar digital elevation model from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and SELENE Terrain Camera. Icarus 2016, 273, 346–355.
5. Di, K.; Liu, Y.; Liu, B.; Peng, M. Photogrammetric Processing of Chang’E-1 and Chang’E-2 STEREO Imagery for Lunar Topographic Mapping. In; Planetary Geodesy and Remote Sensing, 2014; pp. 77–96. ISBN: 978-1-4822-1489-5
|Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences
Geomorphological constraints on the current eruptive flux in the Tharsis volcanic province
In the absence of direct evidence for current eruptions (<2.4 Ma), the present-day eruptive magma flux on Mars remains unconstrained and volcanism is often considered completely extinct. In order to provide more constraints for potential volcanism on Mars we modelled magma flux in the Tharsis province based on mapping, dating, and morphometric measurements of the inherent volcanoes. Here, the 21.3-km-high Olympus Mons is accompanied by eleven >2 km high volcanoes and >340 much smaller, mostly parasitic cones (>1 km in diameter), which we mapped with QGIS and ArcGIS using combined datasets from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) of Mars Odyssey (MO), and Context Camera (CTX) of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). For the twelve large volcanoes, we estimated edifice volumes and ages of the last activity at the summit calderas. The volumes were calculated with ArcMap using the digital elevation model (DEM) from MOLA/MGS (128 pixels/degree) operating on the Mars 2000 coordinate system with an equirectangular projection. The youngest calderas were dated by counting >100-m craters with ArcGIS extension CraterTools on the CTX imagery. Only for Alba Mons’s youngest caldera, >50-m craters were counted using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) data of MRO due to insufficient quality of the inherent CTX image. Our results indicate a significant inverse correlation (R2 = 0.84) between the 12 volcano volumes and their youngest summit caldera age. Our mathematical model assimilating the obtained correlation with previous thermal models suggests a total long-term eruptive magma flux of ~150 km3/Myr. We predict active magma reservoirs under Olympus Mons and Tharsis Montes.
|Space Research Centre PAS
Thermal mapping of the martian surface
Thermal data usefully complement other datasets used in geological interpretations, with the capability of mapping, for instance, the distribution of rock types of distinct thermophysical properties, the activity and diversity of slope processes, the distribution of shallow ice and its seasonal variations, or variations of dust thickness. We illustrate some of these capabilities. Using THEMIS data, the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) and differential apparent thermal inertia (DATI) methods make it possible to map thermal inertia of the surface of Mars using available data only, with no data interpolation in contrary to conventional thermal inertia mapping, and is particularly efficient at mapping thermophysical contrasts on slopes > 10°. Using a database of 1,424,366 surface temperature retrievals from PFS distributed over 18438 Mars Express orbits covering 9 martian years (Ls=331.18° of MY 26 to Ls=21.17° of MY 34), seasonal surface changes can be tracked and characterised, for instance in polar caps.
|GEOPS - Paris Sud - CNRS - Paris Saclay
Mapping the tsunami deposits on Mars
The possibility that a large ocean once occupied the Martian northern plains is one of the most important and controversial hypotheses to have originated from the exploration of Mars. Recently, the identification of lobate deposits, which appear to originate from within the plains and onlap the plains margin, have been interpreted as potential tsunami deposits associated with the existence of a former ocean (Rodriguez et al., 2016; Costard et al., 2017). We mapped and compared the supposed tsunami deposits in the northern plains of Mars with the predictions of well-validated terrestrial models of tsunami wave propagation. These deposits appear to have originated from one or more impact-generated tsunamis in a Martian northern ocean.
|Center for Studies and Activities for Space "G. Colombo"- CISAS - Italy
Analyses of linear structures, Pit chains and rifting in Noctis Labyrinthus (Mars) based on Data derived from HRSC and MOLA
We studied grabens, Pits chain and Rifting in Noctis Labyrinthus by mapping faults at different scales, using 2 orthoimages from HRSC as a basemap and a single DEM from MOLA. The distribution of the maximum displacement vs. length, shows a large scattering of values, implies the relation expressed by D=Ɣ.L. Our measurements show a variation of the D/L ratio with a slope between -3 and -1, which is compared to previous studies for Martian fault system. The negative power law for the cumulative frequency plot, seems to support the presence of homogenous basalts on the studied area. However, the complex structures in Noctis Labyrinthus shows a volcano-tectonic activity, which is the driving process for the formation and evolution of the grabens and aligned Pit chains.
|LESIA - Observatoire de Paris
The Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access Project
The VESPA data access system focuses on applying Virtual Observatory (VO) techniques and tools to Planetary Science data, and supports all aspects of Solar System science. VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) is developed in the framework of the EU-funded Europlanet-2020 program started Sept 1st, 2015 for 4 years. The objective of this activity is to facilitate searches in big archives as well as in sparse databases, to provide simple data access and on-line visualization tools to users, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort.
|Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg - CDS
Aladin and HiPS planetary maps
|Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. IAPS-INAF
A workflow for earth and planetary geologic mapping in the digital domain
Like most of the scientific activities abroad, also geologic mapping has slowly migrated to the digital domain. Being an interpretative process, digital geologic mapping needs a deeper computer-human interaction when compared with traditional processing techniques. While specific software has been developed specifically for the problem, their use did not spread among the scientific community and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is nowadays the de-facto standard for the crafting of a geologic map. Here we will discuss a workflow for the production of a geologic map, from digitizing to the presentation of the results. We will discuss the pipeline's aspects, limits, and possible improvements.
|Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. IAPS-INAF
The python interface to the MoonDB lunar sample database
A. Frigeri, K. Lehnert, P. Ji
The MoonDB project started in 2015 from a collaboration between the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory's Geoinformatics Research Group and NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). MoonDB is a data system that restores and synthesizes historical and new geochemical and petrological data of lunar samples collected during missions to the moon. More than 13000 analytical data and metadata are currently stored in a relational database with a schema derived from the Observations Data Model Version 2 (ODM2), and made available through a representational state transfer (REST) interface. Here we present the python interface to MoonDB developed at IAPS-INAF in Italy. This software module will enable access to the DB in the python scripting language. The first public version will be presented together with a demo notebook application. The software will be published as Free Open Source software following the forthcoming OpenAccess guidelines for research products in EU.
|European Space Astronomy Centre, Madrid, Spain
Mapping a duck: on the pitfalls of highly irregular bodies like 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Highly irregular bodies like Rosetta's target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko pose some challenges for mapping. In particular, standard global map projections cannot display the complete surface because different points on the surface can have the same longitude and latitude. Based on an approach from the area of machine-learning and self-organizing artificial neural networks, we have developed the Quincuncial Adaptive Closed Kohonen (QuACK) map, which allows us to display the complete comet in generalized versions of any standard map projection. Another problem of such irregular bodies is the determination and display of instrument footprints, as these may contain holes. We show and discuss the approach envisaged for the Rosetta Map View in ESA's Planetary Science Archive.
|Space Research Centre PAS
Structural and compositional mapping of shear zones in northern Valles Marineris
We report the existence of NE-SW oriented dextral brittle-plastic shear zones exposed in the deepest parts of Ophir Chasma and Hebes Chasma. Structural and composition maps are presented based on HiRISE and CRISM observations. The structure of the shear zones is interpreted in terms of kinematics. Their age and development is put into the broader geologic context of Valles Marineris. Their orientation and kinematics is consistent with Valles Marineris extension perpendicular to the main chasmata. Shear zone composition and geometry place constraints on the deformation depth and the erosional processes that make possible their current exposure at the surface.
|Jacobs University Bremen
Geological mapping of Arsinoes and Pyrrhae Chaos
E. Luzzi and A. P. Rossi
Chaotic terrains such as Arsinoes and Pyrrhae Chaos are wide areas characterized by a basaltic bedrock affected by kilometric faults and fractures that cause a polygonal pattern of blocks and knobs. The bedrock within the Chaotic terrains is identified in literature as the Chaotic terrain unit (,) and it is subdivided into three subunits: Fractured plain, Knobby terrain and High Thermal Inertia Chaotic terrain . The Fractured plain subunit represents the less eroded subunit of the Chaotic terrain: it is still possible to observe the mesas separated by the deep faults. The Knobby terrain subunit shows the same spectral signature of the Fractured plain and is always in lateral contact with it, that’s why it is reasonable to consider the Knobby terrain as the erosional evolution of the Fractured plain. The High Thermal Inertia Chaotic terrain occurs in Arsinoes Chaos only in a small area in the northeastern part of the Chaos and shows heavy erosion and higher thermal inertia than the other two subunits. In the central part of Arsinoes Chaos, stratigraphically above the Knobby terrain, a light-toned layered unit lies with a dip direction of 100-130 and a dip angle between 4° and 26°. The layered unit has been interpreted as a sedimentary unit, rich in phyllosilicates (perhaps associated with sulfates). The hematite, occurring abundantly in the nearby Aram Chaos  was not detected in a significant amount. The last unit lies unconformably on top of the sedimentary unit and thus it was informally called Cap unit, with no references to the Cap unit described by , since the CRISM cube does not show sulfates in this plateau-like unit in Arsinoes Chaos and also the scalloped morphology is less pronounced than in Aram. In Pyrrhae Chaos the succession is limited to the Fractured plain and the Knobby terrain, posing an unresolved question about the differences between the two terrains that may have caused the lack of sedimentary units in Pyrrhae Chaos. A dense network of grabens and pit chains, likely of volcanic origin, was also mapped and will be further investigated through fractal analyses and analog experiments.
References:  Carr, M. H., Masursky, H., & Saunders, R. S. (1973). JGR, 78(20), 4031-4036  Sharp, R. P. et al. (1971). JGR, 76(2), 331-342.  Glotch, T. D., & Christensen, P. R. (2005) JGR-Planets, 110(E9).
Towards a New Face for Planetary Maps on the Web
In the context the OpenPlanetaryMap project, we present an overview of a new cartographic approach of creating a web basemap for Mars (and other Solar System bodies) designed to enhance the overall user experience of a wide range of web mapping applications.The OpenPlanetaryMap (OPM) project is an community-driven initiative to build the first Open Planetary Mapping and Social platform for planetary scientists, space enthusiasts, educators and storytellers. The main goal of this project is to make it easy to create and share location-based knowledge and maps of Mars and other planets of our Solar System.
Analysis of CRISM images using ADAM
(1, 2, 3) Ramiro Marco Figuera, (1, 2) Simone Mantovani, (1) Antonio Vecoli, (1, 2) Stefano Natali and (3) Angelo Pio Rossi
(1) MEEO S.r.l, Ferrara, Italy (2) SISTEMA GmbH, Vienna, Austria (3) Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany
We present the early extension of ADAM technology to manage the planetary science data: a set of tools to exploit CRISM data using OGC standards. ADAM (https://adamplatform.eu) is an efficient and robust system that allows managing the full data life-cycle through a so-called datacube approach: discovery, access, exploration, processing and visualization services are made available on top of the 3D virtual globe powered by ESA-NASA Web World Wind, the natural environment where the users (Earth Scientists, citizens, …) find easy-to-use service functionalities to dynamically interact with geospatial products. ADAM provides also a Jupyter Notebook and a set of APIs for data access and processing to satisfy the needs of a large variety of users. Using Web Coverage Service (WCS) queries we enabled the possibility to visualize single images, create mosaics based on time constraints and/or geographic extension. Also, a set of Web Processing Service (WPS) capabilities to generate RGB combinations, user-defined band math and RGB combinations of CRISM products. The tools aim to remove data access barrier to the users and to facilitate the interaction with such data and an easy integration with existing pipelines.
|GEOPS - Paris Sud - CNRS - Paris Saclay
A Cesiumjs App for planetary data visualization
The World Wide Web is a major channel of dissemination for science data. It is also the place where scientists seek information, publish their findings and confront ideas. Internet browsers have become portable, generic clients that are used not only to display remote information, but also to manipulate and modify it. 3D rendering via WebGL has literally added a new dimension to visual surface inspection. Until today 3D Planetary Web visualization has made extensive use of the Cesiumjs library. Cesiumjs comes with a set of features ready for GIS analysis, but is still lacking full generalization to planetary bodies different from Earth. We present updates on the configurable Cesiumjs App for planetary data visualization: addition of terrain data, future developments made possible by Cesiumjs recent improvements.
|Space Research Centre PAS
Diversity of tectonics in Valles Marineris and surroundings revealed by structural mapping
In spite of intense erosion, the Valles Marineris region still bears evidence of tectonic deformation, some of it dating back to the earliest stages of trough system development, if not earlier. Ongoing structural mapping reveals an amazingly rich polyphase tectonic history, in which brittle shears (Hydrae Cavus) echo brittle-plastic shear zones (Ophir Chasma), crustal folds turn to volcanic complexes (Ophir Planum), dyke swarms denote chasma-parallel dilation, but also oblique and perpendicular dilation (Coprates and Ophir chasmata) kinematically consistent with overlooked normal faulting on the Valles Marineris plateau, and compressional wrinkle ridges follow narrow grabens. An overview of this diversity will be presented.
A Map Package based on 15 individual Geological Maps of Ceres: Review of a Compilation Process
One aim of the NASA Dawn mission was to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and results have been published in e.g. . Recently also geologic mapping of Ceres has been completed. The tiling used in this mapping project is based on recommendations by , and is divided into two parts (for Ceres described in [3,4]): four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The atlases are available to the public through the Dawn webpage (dawngis.dlr.de/atlas) and the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) (pdssbn.astro.umd.edu). The first global geologic map at a scale of 1:2.5 M is based on survey and HAMO images . A more detailed view could be expected within the 15 quadrangles (HAMO tiles, ) which were completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data (over 31,300 clear filter images during 11 cycles, 35 m/pixel). For this interpretative mapping one responsible mapper was assigned for each quadrangle. Thus, 15 individual quadrangle maps were conducted at a scale of 1:100K-125K, and published at a scale of 1:1M in the special volume on “The geological mapping of Ceres” . Once the individual tile mapping has been finished, datasets are expected to be “combinable” within ESRI’s ArcGIS platform. Therefore, the mapping process was supported by a mapping template which was developed within the ArcGIS environment and enables a geometrically and visually homogeneous map project. Templates like this are very established in multi-user projects (e.g. within the Geological Mapping Program conducted and guided by the USGS Astrogeology Science Center, ASC) and improves the result of mapping process through pre-defined symbols, object attributes, geometric properties and map sheet elements. The template presented here contains different layers) for different object/geometry types including predefined attribute values and cartographic symbol specifications. The symbols follow guides set up in  as far as possible, and colors for geological units were defined according to individual needs and requests within the mapping team. Previous statuses of the mapping compilation process are described in [8, 9]. The current template has served as a necessary basis for mappers to generate their individual – but still comparable – maps, and thus gives the possibility to merge the 15 quads in the future to one global map. The final status and general information of the mapping project are summarized in . Because the creation of the mapping template was an iterative process, there are still some topics (focus on GIS and cartographic visualization) to discuss on the way to a homogeneous and comparable map layout. The compiled map package represents the first global map showing the geology of Ceres on LAMO resolution data at a mapping scale of 1:100-125K within an GIS-based map package, and is published digitally at a scale of 1:2.5M in A0 (as combination of 15 1:1M quadrangle maps ). It serves as an accessible basis for upcoming investigations, and is available via the PDS annex with all relevant information. The template developed specifically for Ceres mapping serves as a basis to enable consistent and homogeneous compilation of a global map from 15 individual quadrangle maps. However, while a map template provides the technical framework and allows for consistency, human interaction, iteration and a certain degree of flexibility, a homogenization of the global interpretation is still indispensable in order to arrive at common approach and understanding of mapping boundaries. Thus, only through a final scientific review of the global map dataset and subsequent adjustment of remaining cartographic issues would allow the creating of the homogenous and unified global map product. Within this contribution a critical review of the existing package and lessons learned useable for further mapping projects in the future will be presented. References:  Williams D.A. et al., 2014, Icarus, 244, 1-12,  Greeley, R. & Batson, G., Planetary Mapping, Cambridge University Press, 1990,  Roatsch et al 2016, PSS 121, 115-120, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2015.12.005,  Roatsch et al, 2016, PSS 126, p 103-107, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2016.05.011,  Mest, S. et al., 2017, LPSC, #2512,  Williams D.A. et al. (ed.), 2018, Icarus, 316, 1-204  FGDC, Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization, FGDC-STD-013-2006, 2006,  Nass, A. and the Dawn Mapping Team, 2017, LPSC #1892,  Nass, A. and the Dawn Mapping Team, 2017, EPSC #147-2,  Williams, D.A. etal., 2018, Icarus 316, 1-13, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.05.004
Towards a concept for a Planetary Science Data Library based on a Spatial Data Infrastructure Model
After a planetary mission’s lifetime, digital data such as raster images, data cubes, terrain model data and photomosaics, as well as the respective pieces of meta information are stored in digital archives or repositories. For the planetary sciences, the main archives are ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) and the Planetary Data System (PSA) Nodes in the USA [1, 2]. In addition, a number of national space science institutes and agencies across the globe provide access to archived mission data for a period of time as long-term archiving and making data accessible to the public requires dedicated long-term resources. These data are potentially compiled into higher-level data products and maps to form a basis for continued research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The concept of mapping generally encompasses the process of information abstraction and compilation in order to generate higher-level data products and maps. However, in the planetary sciences ‘mapping’ has a number of different meanings attached to it. One aim of planetary mapping is related to research topics and is scientifically motivated, another one might be related to engineering topics (landing sites or surface activities). Mapping can also refer to systematically observing a surface from orbital platforms and thus it combines techniques of systematic retrieval of physical information. Finally, mapping might also refer to the technical and artistic creation of map products. In order to create a basis for data re-usability, and organize reliable and lasting data access, a consistent and extensive data basis accessible through a common infrastructure in a research environment is required. In the planetary sciences first efforts are being made to establish a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) and make data easily accessible, ready for interpretation and operation, and usable by non-spatial data experts . Furthermore, a formal coordination of organizational processes will be required. There are currently efforts and initiatives in the planetary sciences to make higher-level spatial information, such as conventional maps and cartographic products, available to the community. Platforms are – among others – the USGS for standardized geological maps , or the Astropedia Annex which is a data portal integrated into the PDS for registering and hosting derived geospatial products . We introduce and discuss existing standards, as well as first initiatives, such as MAPSIT (NASA) , PlanMap (Horizon2020), or VESPA (Europlanet). For building a library for scientific data in general and maps in particular we are looking into and learning from the current European infrastructure framework (INSPIRE ). This infrastructure is built on established standards from the OGC and ISO for metadata and services. INSPIRE looks like an ideal infrastructure to adopt and adapt existing elements like the predefined data models (e.g. for geology), and levels of coordination nodes. Our first step is to create a user and system analysis, where data, information, processes, user groups, systems and responsibilities are visualized within one scheme. The current situation will be presented and serves as basis for upcoming discussions on establishing a Planetary Science Data Library. References:  PDS (2009) PDS3 Standards Reference, JPL D - 7669, Part 2, Version 3.8.  PSA (2019) European Space Agency. http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa  Laura J. R. et al (2017) ISPRS Int. Jrn. Geo-Information, 6(6), 181,  USGS (2019) Astrogeology Branch. astrogeology.usgs.gov/maps,  Hare, T. A., et al., (2013) 44th LPSC, #2044,  Radebaugh, J. et al. (2019) EPSC, #EPSC-DPS2019-951,  INSPIRE (2019) Inspire Knowledge Base. inspire.ec.europa.eu
|Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan
Mapping and dating of small volcanic cones to reconstruct Tharsis plumbing system
Although Tharsis is the largest volcanic province on Mars, the origin of numerous small volcanic cones in this area is not yet fully explained. Characterizing the system of small volcanic cones in terms of space and time is essential to determine whether or not they are geologically associated with the giant Tharsis volcanoes. To remedy this gap we analyzed (1) the spatial distribution of small volcanoes, (2) orientation of volcano summit craters or central fissure vent, as well as dating to estimate (3) surface age of their flanks. We identified at least five parasitic cone systems related to the giant Tharsis volcanoes (Olympus Mons, Alba Mons, and three Tharsis Montes volcanoes: Arsia Mons, Pavonis Mons, Ascraeus Mons). These systems have been fed by recent and potentially still active magma chambers connected to a system of radial dikes as controlled by regional stress regime and magma pressure related to magma supply.
EPOS, OneGeology INSPIRE and other geoscience data infrastructures : nothing without standards
Standards for sharing geological data have developed in the last two decades mainly within the community of geological surveys. They are based on OGC standards, and coordinated by the IUGS/CGI (the Commission for geoscience information of IUGS). They have been deployed in different contexts (including the INSPIRE European Directive on environmental data sharing). They are now at core of the geological component of EPOS, the European Infrastructure for solid earth.
|Jacobs University Bremen, Germany
PLANMAP: Geological mapping supporting the exploration of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury
Angelo Pio Rossi (1), Matteo Massironi (2), Luca Penasa (2), Carlos Brandt (1), Riccardo Pozzobon (2), Erica Luzzi (1). and the Planmap Consortium (3)
(1) Jacobs University Bremen, Germany (2) Università di Padova, Italy (3) https://planmap.eu/?q=team
Geologic mapping key to many elements of planetary exploration, ranging from mission planning, orbital and rover reconnaissance, the reconstruction of local to global planetary geologic histoties and multi-scale characterisation and selection of landing sites and sample analyses.
PLANMAP aims at producing geologic maps with the widest possible range of underlying data sources, including imagery, topography, hyperspectral, and geophysical data, as well as direct or indirect three-dimensional information, in order to produce surface and subsurface geologic models of planetary surfaces at local and regional scales, both from orbital and lander/rover platforms.
Mapping products at various level of maturity and development are available on the Planmap data portal as both files, web-accessible maps and OGC endpoints for both desktop and programmatic access on https://data.planmap.eu/ and https://maps.planmap.eu/.
Planmpap code and utilities are going to be available on https://github.com/planmap-eu.
Acknowledgements: Planmap receives funding from the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 776276.
Using TOPCAT with sparse measurements on planetary surfaces
TOPCAT, one of the major tools of the Virtual Observatory, is a free community software with fast, strong and various functionalities, designed to manage large tables. It allows deep investigations of datasets without large computation capacities and with a smooth learning curve. Its recent developments improve the way to map sparse data with the possibility to take into account the real size of each pixel. We want to share an example of workflow based on imaging spectrometry and present some capabilities of TOPCAT of interest for planetary surfaces, with a stress on the mapping functionalities.
|GEOPS - Paris Sud - CNRS - Paris Saclay
Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change – Using distribution of ice‐related landforms to understand multiple ice‐rich deposits in Utopia Planitia
The northern plains of Mars comprise several large overlapping sedimentary basins that contain near surface ground ice even at mid-latitude. However, no consensus about the nature of ground ice and formation of the planetary permafrost. The spatial distributions of ice-related landform at broad-scale and control by regional geology or climate is still not constrained. Improving the geological context of the northern plains will help constrain outstanding questions about Martian geological evolution. An International Space Science Institute team project has been convened to study ice-related landforms in targeted areas in the northern plain of Mars: Acidalia, Arcadia, and Utopia Planitiae. Rather than traditional mapping with points, lines and polygons, we used a grid “tick box” approach to efficiently determine distribution of specific landforms by using grid of squares (20×20 km). We mapped the western Utopia Planitia along a strip from 25°N to 75°N latitude of 250 km wide. Over the region, ice-related landforms were identified and recorded as being either “present”, “dominant”, or “absent” in each sub-grid square displayed in a Cassini projection. The end result of the mapping is a "raster" showing the distribution of the various different types of landforms across the whole strip providing a digital geomorphological map. Our results show that based on their spatial association, there are different assemblages of landforms indicative of different deposits with various ice-content. Stratigraphic analysis of the deposits and crater counting gave insight to the geological history of the region. Their distribution is not only related to latitude but also on topography, geological context. Grid mapping provides an efficient and scalable approach to collecting data on large quantities of small landforms over large areas.
Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Dept. Space and climate physics, University College London
3D multi-resolution mapping of RSLs at Valles Marineris
Yu Tao (1), Jan-Peter Muller (1), Susan Conway (2)
(1) Imaging group, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, RH5 6NT, UK (2) Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, 2 rue de la Houssinière, Nantes, France
Recurring Slope Lineae (RSLs) are metre-to decametre-wide dark streaks found on steep slopes, which grow during the warmest times of the year, fading during the cooler periods and reappearing again (but not necessarily in exactly the same place). The origin of these features is strongly contested, with some authors suggesting they are formed by surface water  or brine and others suggesting they are completely dry processes . The implications of each of these formation mechanisms is fundamental to constraining Mars’ water budget and habitability. The Valles Marineris (VM) area is where the highest concentration of RSLs is found on Mars as well as being the sole location where the triple point of water can be reached during the Martian summertime. Our study focuses on multi-resolution 3D mapping of the whole VM area using the cascaded Mars Express High Resolution Camera (HRSC), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX), High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and the ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) dataset, and automated RSL detection and tracking using the CTX and repeat HiRISE images. We focus on techniques and will publish the results of the multi-resolution 3D mapping and RSL tracking. Within the completed EU FP-7 iMars (http://www.i-mars.eu) project, a fully automated multi-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) processing chain was developed at UCL for NASA CTX and HiRISE stereo-pairs, called the Co-registration ASP-Gotcha Optimised (CASP-GO), based on the open source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) , tie-point based multi-resolution image co-registration , and the Gotcha  sub-pixel refinement method. The CASP-GO system guarantees global geo-referencing congruence with respect to the aerographic coordinate system defined by HRSC, level-4 products and thence to the MOLA, providing much higher resolution stereo derived DTMs. By mid 2018, CASP-GO has been used to process ~5,300 planet-wide CTX DTMs using the MSSL-Imaging processing cluster and the Microsoft Azure® cloud computing platform , which are now being published through the ESAC Guest Storage Facilities (GSF) . In this study, we refined and updated the CTX 3D mapping results for the whole VM area using a hybrid processing approach combining the CASP-GO method and the new ASP MGM method . In addition, multi-resolution HRSC level 2 stereo images are being processed at UCL using CASP-GO to merge with the existing DLR HRSC level 4 DTMs to create a mosaiced base map of the VM area. A few TGO CaSSIS stereo images are currently being experimented with to form a cascaded HRSC-CTX-CaSSIS-HiRISE 3D dataset, which will be completed by mid-June, 2019. In parallel, within the completed EU FP-7 Planetary Robotics Vision Data Exploitation (PRoViDE) project (http://provide-space.eu), we developed a super-resolution restoration (SRR) algorithm called Gotcha Partial differential equation based Total variation (GPT) SRR  to restore distorted features from multi-angle observations using advanced feature and area matcher and regularization approaches, achieving a factor of 2x-5x enhancement in resolution for repeat-pass HiRISE images . More recently funded by the UKSA CEOI (SuperRes-EO project), we further developed the SRR system using advanced machine learning algorithms, applied to Earth Observation (EO) data. The new Multi-Angle GPT with Generative Adversarial Network refinement (MAGiGAN) SRR system [10,11] not only retrieves subpixel information from multi-angle distorted features from the original GPT SRR algorithm, but also retrieve high frequency texture detail through fully trained single image SRR network for multi-resolution EO datasets. We have ported most of the MAGiGAN SRR system to a GPU array and are about to form a training dataset from CTX and HiRISE images to apply this to CTX and HiRISE images. Studying the transport and formation processes on the Martian surface requires accurate measurements of dynamic features and the underlying 3D static surface. Tracking of such dynamic features has never been achieved automatically before due to the fact that detection and classification methods usually require a static reference frame and do not perform well when the feature itself is changing all the time. Previously, we demonstrated a new approach to detect and track the dynamic features by extracting the “static part” of the Martian surface through SRR using repeat-pass HiRISE observations. Due to the ability of the SRR technique to extract super-resolution for static features, we are able to restore matched (unchanged) features and meanwhile automatically track the unmatched (dynamic) pixels to characterize and measure the “change”. Combining with a feature classifier, the detected dynamic changes can be further classified to known dynamic features, such as RSLs. Previously, we reported on our initial RSL detection and tracking results of one of the RSL sites (centre coordinates: 41.6°S, 202.3°E) at Palikir Crater using the GPT SRR dynamic feature masking and SVM based classification from 8 repeat-pass HiRISE images . In this work, we show modifications of the RSL detection and tracking system that involves a deep image network for better classification results at the VM area. The detection will be demonstrated using both CTX and HiRISE (where detection from CTX is positive) images. Tracking of the RSL features will be demonstrated using repeat HiRISE images. In the final stage, adding the 3D information derived from the multi-resolution DTMs, detected and tracked RSL features will be associated with their slopes and orientations, providing a more comprehensive interpretation of the RSL formation processes in 3D. In the longer term, we aim to provide a regional map of RSL occurrence, with associated growth rates, timings (including inter-annual variability) and topographic information (including slopes and orientation) as well as uncertainties associated with the detection results. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results is receiving funding from the UKSA Aurora programme (2018-2021) under grant no. ST/S001891/1. The research leading to these results also received partial funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement n˚ 607379. Part of this research has also received funding from the UK Space Agency Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation under SuperRes-EO project grant number RP10G0435A05 and OVERPaSS project grant number RP10G0435C206. References  Stillmam, D.E. et al. (2017), Icarus, vol 285, pp.195–210.  Schmidt, F. et al. (2017), Nature.  Beyer, R., O. Alexandrov, S. McMichael (2018), Earth and Space Science, vol 5(9), pp.537-548.  Tao, Y., J.-P. Muller, W. Poole (2016), Icarus, vol 280, pp.139-157.  Shin, D. and J.-P. Muller (2012), Pattern Recognition, vol 45(10), pp.3795 -3809.  Tao, Y., J-P. Muller (2018), Planetary and Space Science, vol. 154, pp.30-58.  Muller, J.-P. et al. (2019), EPSC 2019 abstract.  Tao, Y. and J.-P. Muller (2015), Planetary and Space Science, vol 154, pp.30-58.  Tao, Y., J.-P. Muller (2016), ISPRS 2016 Commission IV, WG IV/8.  Tao, Y., J.-P. Muller (2018), SPIE, vol 10789, pp. 1078903.  Tao, Y., J.-P. Muller (2018), Remote sensing, vol 11(1).  Tao, Y., J.-P. Muller (2018), EPSC2018-509.
|Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
Tectonic mapping of Hydrae Cavus, Valles Marineris, Mars
Previous work revealed large-scale dextral brittle-plastic NE-SW trending shear zones that affect the deepest parts of Hebes Chasma and Ophir Chasma. These results suggest that the northern part of Valles Marineris is probably composed of large sheared tectonic blocks that moved relative to each other while Valles Marineris was being stretched perpendicular to its main, ESE trend. We have sought other evidence of NE-SW shears in the vicinity of Valles Marineris, and found it at Hydrae Cavus, a 20 by 60 km, 1600 m deep basin located 130 km east of Candor Chasma, interpreted to be of tectonic origin.Using Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX) camera images (6 m/px), we carried out new mapping of the faults bounding the Hydrae Cavus basin. In addition, we performed a morphological study of the depression to infer its origin. To this end we used available High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (100 m/px). Our preliminary results confirm the tectonic origin of Hydrae Cavus, indicated by normal faults along the basin boundaries. Rhombic basin shape and parallel NW-SE-trending and E-W-trending normal faults on NE and SW boundaries, respectively, show high similarity to terrestrial pull-apart basins. Therefore, we interpret Hydrae Cavus as a pull-apart basin, with a stretching direction N-S and a strike-slip movement along ENE-WSW. Morphology of the basin indicates a dextral movement. The basin kinematics is consistent with the kinematics of the brittle-plastic shear zones in the Hebes and Ophir chasmata. However, the latter have not propagated to the plateau volcanic unit (eHv) where Hydrae Cavus is located, suggesting that the main shearing stage predated this eruptive event, and reactivation occurred in the area east of Candor Chasma.
|Center of studies and activities for space “G. Colombo” of Padova
Geological characterization of Tsiolkovskiy crater as a possible landing site for rover-based lunar exploration
Tsiolkovskiy crater, located on the far side of the Moon, is considered the best example of farside mare volcanism. It is a Late Imbrian elliptical crater with a minor axis diameter of 180 km centered at 20.4° S, 129.1° E in the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane. The crater floor, which shows an elevation difference between its northern and southern portions, presents a particularly dark mare deposit and an exclusively bright and well-preserved central peak, in which has been defined the presence of anorthosite composed of nearly 100% anorthite, also defined as Purest ANorthosite (PAN), and olivine. The above mentioned characteristics and the unusually smooth surface of the crater floor make Tsiolkovskiy crater a scientifically interesting and safe place for a possible landing site. Aiming to focus the strategy of exploration with rovers by means of planned traverses, we are producing geological maps of the site to select locations of high interest for investigations and analysis. The main basemap used to characterize the surface morphology of the impact crater is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (LROC-WAC) mosaic with a resolution up to 100 m/pixel along with elevation data derived from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and Kaguya DEM merge. Tsiolkovskiy’s rim delimits the mapping area inside which have been defined the crater floor units (i.e. central peak, smooth and hummocky material) and the crater walls units (i.e. rim, steep scarps and smooth ponds). The geomorphological mapping has then been coupled with the spectral characterization of Tsiolkovskiy crater performed on the basis of the a ~200 m/pixel false color composite generated using the Clementine UVVIS reflectance image. The mapping has been performed on the basis of the different color of the units, associated to a different origin and composition of the material, which are mostly directly correlated to the morphological units. Once the geological mapping will be concluded, an area of the crater will be selected and a study at higher resolution, by means of LROC Narrow Angle Camera images, will be performed in order to define possible rover traverses.
|Freie Universität Berlin
Virtual Observatory interoperability to the HRSC services offered by Freie Universitaet Berlin
A web mapping application including novel tools for simultaneous visualization of single images as time series in their original sequence has been implemented in . It is based on the High‐Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) as geodetic control and provides services dedicated to that mission. The services provide access to image and height datasets for HRSC compliant with the definitions of the Open Geospatial Consortium. We set up an backend connection to the services via the EPN-TAP protocol and describe the challenges with regards to custom definitions of spatial reference and the different available levels of processing.
 The Web‐Based Interactive Mars Analysis and Research System for HRSC and the iMars Project, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EA000389
Mineralogical mapping of airless bodies of the Solar System
The analysis of hyper- and multispectral remote sensing datasets is essential to investigate the mineralogy and the physical and chemical properties of a planetary surface. The mineralogy and the average composition of the surface of airless bodies observed today in our Solar System are the result of formation and evolution processes that occurred over geologic timescales. In the last decade, our knowledge on planetary surfaces improved considerably thanks to the datasets acquired by remote sensing instruments, such as cameras and spectrometers on board several space missions. Here, we show issues and potentialities of different hyper- and multispectral datasets aimed to the production and analysis of mineralogical and spectral indices maps of airless bodies of the Solar System.
MATISSE 2.0: a hub for the planetary science community
After almost 6 years, MATISSE is ready to be updated to improve its interface and services, maintaining the 3D capabilities of the present version and improving its interactive capabilities for the 2D by using the Planetary FITS standard. Among the main differences with the old (1.x) version, it is worthy to note that MATISSE 2.0, using a servlet-based configuration, will be available both from the web-interface and from command-line, thus helping the user to perform advanced and iterated operations. The main goal of MATISSE 2.0 is to make the fusion between different datasets easier and more scientific valuable, indifferently using data stored in local SSDC repository or accessible by remote through international standards, such as those of VESPA Planetary VO. The tool, in a beta version with limited capabilities and datasets, will likely be available before this summer and until the release of a stable version the MATISSE 1.x tool will be maintained active.