EPN2020RI
EUROPLANET2020 Research Infrastructure
H2020INFRAIA20142015
Grant agreement no: 654208
Document: VESPAWP112016TNv0.4(40)
Planetary Coordinate Systems
Date:
Start date of project: 01 September 2015
Duration: 48 Months
Responsible WP Leader: Stéphane Erard
Project cofunded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme  
Dissemination level  
PU  Public  
PP  Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Service)  
RE  Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services)  
CO  Confidential, only for members of the consortium (excluding the Commission Services) 
Project Number  654208 
Project Title  EPN2020  RI 
Project Duration  48 months: 01 September 2015 – 30 August 2019 
Document Number  WP11task2v0.4 
Delivery date  
Title of Document  Planetary Coordinate Systems 
Contributing Work package (s)  WP11 
Dissemination level  PU 
Author (s)  Stéphane Erard, Baptiste Cecconi 
Abstract: The goal of this document is to define the description of Coordinate Systems used in the EPNTAP protocol to access and retrieve Solar System data.

Document history (to be deleted before submission to Commission)  
Date  Version  Editor  Change  Status 
24/02/2012  0.1  First Draft, extracted from EPNTap document V0.20  DRAFT  
27/02/2012  0.2  Names update  DRAFT  
27/09/2013  0.3  Inclusion of various inputs  DRAFT  
0.4  Added Space Physics frames, Jupiter related frames, SPICE frames, Galilean Moon frames (Section 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11)  DRAFT 
Table of Contents
Reference documents
 [RD1] EPNTAP document
 [RD2] EPN data model version 1.18a (last version to date) can be found here:
http://www.europlanetidis.fi/documents/public_documents/Data_Model_v1.18a.pdf  [RD3] TAP protocol:
http://ivoa.net/Documents/TAP/  [RD4] Space time and coordinate in IVOA:
http://ivoa.net/Documents/latest/STC.html  [RD5] IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotation Elements of the Planets and Satellites:
http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Page/groups/name/IAUWGCCRE and references therein  [RD6] PDS standard reference document, JPL D7669, Part 2 v3.8, February 27, 2009
http://pds.nasa.gov/documents/sr/StdRef_20090227_v3.8.pdf  [RD10] Frä̈nz & Harper (2002), section 4.3.1
 [RD11] Thompson (2006)
To be included:
 [RDx] The Committee on Small Body Nomenclature handles Minor Planet Names and Designations, Comet Names and Designations, Cross Listed Objects:
http://www.ss.astro.umd.edu/IAU/csbn/  [RD7] Planetary data access protocol (PDAP). IPDA draft 1.0 (latest to date, Nov. 2011)
http://planetarydata.org/projects/inactiveprojects/dataaccess/documents/pdapversions/pdapv1.009112011/view  [RD8] IAU nomenclature for object types:
http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Planets
Other inputs to be included:
 Chiara's comments, 7/2014
 IMPEx / 3Dview frames doc, 9/2013
 IAU Celes Mech Comm suggestion for historical frames (~ 10/2015)
 Unified Planetary Coordinates  is it from USGS? Seems coupled to site: spatialreference.org
Acronym list
 EPNCore Set of core parameters from EPNDM, mandatory for EPNTAP compatibility
 EPNTAP Specific protocol to access Planetary Science data in EuroplanetVO
 EPNDM Specific Data Model to describe Planetary Science data in EuroplanetVO
 epn_core Name of table / view of a database which contains the EPNTAP parameters. Required for EPNTAP compatibility
 IVOA International Virtual Observatory Alliance
 IPDA International Planetary Data Alliance
 PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) Protocol to access planetary data space archives, developed and maintained by IPDA.
 TAP (Table Access Protocol) One of the protocols developed by IVOA to access astronomical data.
 ObsTAP TAP protocol applied to the Observation Data Model of IVOA
 ObsCore set of core parameters from the Observation Data Model of IVOA
 ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language)
1  Introduction
The EPNTAP protocol is directly derived from IVOA’s TAP [RD3], a simple protocol to access data organized in tables, here adapted for Planetary Science data. EPNTAP and its implicit Data Model EPNcore are described in [RD1]. A more comprehensive Data Model for Planetary Science is also available [RD2].
In the EPNTAP protocol, the data files are described in a table named epn_core by a set of mandatory parameters. The spatial_frame_type parameter provides the general “flavor” of the coordinate system, and can have the following values: celestial, body, cartesian, cylindrical, spherical, healpix. This parameter defines the nature of the 3 spatial coordinates (named c1,c2,c3).
When using some values of the spatial_frame_type parameter, the spatial_origin and spatial_coordinate_description parameters allow the data provider to specify the exact coordinate system used in the data set (including altitude). The system in use is known by the data provider, and the parameters are essentially intended to provide this information to the user for comparison with other data sets. In the future, this information could be used to perform automatic coordinate conversions.
The present document lists possible values for these parameters. The values listed here are adapted from the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements reports [RD5], the SpaceTime Coordinates (STC) document from IVOA [RD4], the PDS standard reference, chap. 2 [RD6], and various references mentioned in the text. All values in the epn_core table should be provided in lower cases; all longitudes are expected to range from 0° to 360° eastward.
2  Coordinate systems
2.1 Native coordinates
Data are projected in a frame related to the instrument or acquisition process.
Typical examples include: X/Y coordinates for a camera, X/time coordinates for an imaging spectrometer.
Possible situation:
spatial_frame_type = cartesian
spatial_coordinate_description = native
Are Spice instrumentframe names acceptable?
Practically, it means that data products are provided in a native instrument frame, and therefore are not spatially registered – they are not searchable on a coordinate basis in general.
2.2 Astronomical / telescopic coordinates
This situation is identified by:
spatial_frame_type = celestial
This provides 2 angles + 1 optional distance counted from the origin.
Coord System Description  Poles  Coordinates  
(=Alt/Az)  elevation (=altitude) –  
galactic latitude  galactic longitude 
It is assumed that horizontal, ecliptic and galactic coordinates are provided with no explicit mention of epoch (which can be retrieved from the date of observation if need be).
The STC [RD4] distinguishes 3 types of equatorial systems:
FK4  Fundamental Katalog, system 4; Besselian  Requires Equinox; default B1950.0 Lefthanded in spherical coordinates 
FK5  Fundamental Katalog, system 5; Julian  Requires Equinox; default J2000.0 Lefthanded in spherical coordinates 
ICRS  International Celestial Reference System  (based on radio sources)  Requires Equinox? 
The reference position is provided through the spatial_origin parameter.
Values of interest from the STC [RD4] (table 1) are:
Reference Position  Description  Comments 
GEOCENTER  Center of the Earth 

BARYCENTER  Center of the solar system barycenter 

HELIOCENTER  Center of the Sun 

TOPOCENTER  “Local”; in most cases this will mean: the location of the telescope 

EMBARYCENTER  EarthMoon barycenter 

MOON  Center of the Moon 

MERCURY  Center of Mercury 

VENUS  Center of Venus 

MARS  Center of Mars 

JUPITER  Center of Jupiter 

SATURN  Center of Saturn 

URANUS  Center of Uranus 

NEPTUNE  Center of Neptune 

PLUTO  Center of Pluto 

RELOCATABLE  Relocatable center; for simulations  Only to be used for spatial coordinates 
UNKNOWNRefPos  Unknown reference position  Only to be used as a last resort. 
Can all value(s) for spacecraft, planetary landers, and orbital telescopes (with moving origin) be accessed through TOPOCENTER, or RELOCATABLE? — PDS3 uses a SPACECRAFT value.
+ Can an ephemeris file be provided for moving locations?
2.3 Solid bodies
This situation is identified by:
spatial_frame_type = body
Provides 2 angles + 1 optional distance (not necessarily from body center, therefore not consistent with the STC).
Coordinate systems may differ by the assumed shape of the body, its rotational elements, the location of the prime meridian, the control point network in use, and the definition of latitudes.
Body fixed reference frames:
Frames are defined through shape / rotational elements in [RD5]
http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Page/groups/name/IAUWGCCRE
+ reference geoid models for the Earth?
Standard planetary coordinate systems and reference ellipsoids are listed here (IAU doc –older systems are not included):
http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/TargetCoordinates
Control networks used are important to mention for highresolution imaging.
Information about Control Networks can be found here (USGS):
http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/maps/controlnetworks
The values mentioned in this and other sources are:
Moon:
ULCN1994— Unified Lunar Control Network (1994)
CLCN — related to Clementine Basemap, 1997
ULCN2004 — Unified ULCN1994 and CLCN, 2004
LOLCN — related to Lunar Orbiter images, 2004
ULCN2005 — Unified Lunar Control Network revised, 2005 (?)
LOLA2011 – Lunar Orbiter, 2011
Mars:
Control Networks are referred to the Digital Image Model first using them.
MDIM — Original Viking mosaics
MDIM2.0 — Mars Digital Image Mosaic (MDIM) 2.0 control network
MDIM2.1 — Mars control network tied to the MOLA Digital Elevation Model
http://www.isprs.org/proceedings/XXXV/congress/comm4/papers/464.pdf
Actual map projections are listed here (ie, list of existing surface maps): http://www.mapaplanet.org/explorer/help/data_set.html
+ see http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2006/pdf/1931.pdf
for possible use in OGC
Coordinate systems may be planetocentric (defined relative to a vector passing by the center of mass) or planetographic (defined relative to the local horizontal plane), resulting in different latitudes if the body is not spherical.
Coordinate systems may be defined as easthanded or westhanded. In the IAU 2000 standard, planetocentric systems must be easthanded for planets and satellites. In any case, the epn_core table must contain a version with eastward longitudes ranging from 0° to 360°, in order to handle EPNTAP queries without ambiguity.
Possible nomenclature:
Target + IAU + year of introduction? => Mars_IAU2000
Does not tell if this is planetocentric/graphic?
Spice names look like IAU_Mars (= always the latest version implied)
References for small bodies
According to IAU standards, small bodies are all considered prograde and their north pole is defined accordingly.
Coordinate system name should state shape model/prime meridian in use?
The STC document distinguishes 2 options related to the meaning of the third coordinate:
To be introduced through the spatial_origin parameter??
GEO_C  Geographic (geocentric) coordinates: longitude, latitude, geocentric distance 
GEO_D  Geodetic coordinates: longitude, latitude, elevation 
In many cases the surface is used as origin, e.g., in atmospheric databases – this corresponds to the geodetic option above.
+ Need different origin for planetographic coordinates?
2.4 Giant planets
This situation is identified by:
spatial_frame_type = body
Provides 2 angles + 1 optional distance (from body center, for consistency with STC?? TBC)
STC distinguishes between planetographic and planetocentric:
 Planetocentric  Planetographic 
 Jupiter_C_III  Jupiter_G_III 
 Saturn_C_III  Saturn_G_III 
 Uranus_C_III  Uranus_G_III 
 Neptune_C_III  Neptune_G_III 
In the PDS3 standard reference there is only one value for each planet in the coordinate_system_ID keyword:
"JUPSYS3", "SATSYS3", "URNSYS3" + VSO
2.5 Plasma / dynamic coordinates
This situation may correspond to
spatial_frame_type = cartesian or spherical
From STC document:
MAG  Geomagnetic coordinates  See F&H (2002) 
GSE  Geocentric Solar Ecliptic coordinates  See F&H (2002) 
GSM  Geocentric Solar Magnetic coordinates  See F&H (2002) 
SM  Solar Magnetic coordinates  See F&H (2002) 
HGC  Heliographic coordinates (Carrington)  See Explanatory Supplement, Section 7.2 Thompson (2006), Section 2.2 
HGS  Heliographic coordinates (Stonyhurst)  See Explanatory Supplement, Section 7.2 Thompson (2006), Section 2.2 
HEEQ  Heliographic Earth Equatorial coordinates  See F&H (2002); related to Heliographic (Stonyhurst), see Thompson (2006), Section 2.1 
HRTN  Heliocentric Radial TangentialNormal coordinates  See F&H (2002) 
HPC  Helioprojective Cartesian coordinates  See Thompson (2006), Section 4.1, 2 or 3dimensional (angular coordinates); left handed 
HPR  Helioprojective Polar coordinates  See Thompson (2006), Section 4.1, 2 dimensional (angular coordinates); left handed 
HCC  Heliocentric Cartesian coordinates  See Thompson (2006), Section 3.1 (linear coordinates); righthanded 
HGI  Heliographic Inertial coordinates  See F&H (2002) 
2.6 Magnetospheric coordinates
This situation may correspond to
spatial_frame_type = cartesian or spherical
Three types of reference frames are used:
 planetocentric solar magnetic (X towards Sun; Z towards planetary magnetic North pole). Only exist when the body has an intrinsic magnetic field.
 planetocentric solar equatorial (X towards Sun; Z perpendicular to the equator of the planet, towards the planetary North pole)
 planetocentric solar ecliptic (X towards the Sun; Z perpendicular to ecliptic plane, in the northern celestial hemisphere)
Each of them is centered on the planet barycenter. Y axis is completing the orthogonal direct reference frames.
Planet  Name  Acronym 

Mercury  Hermian Solar Ecliptic Hermian Solar Magnetic Hermian Solar Equatorial  HSE HSM HSQ 

Venus  Venus Solar Ecliptic Venus Solar Equatorial  VSE VSQ 

Earth  Geocentric Solar Ecliptic Geocentric Solar Equatorial Geocentric Solar Magnetic  GSE GSQ GSM 

Mars  Martian Solar Ecliptic Martian Solar Equatorial  MSE MSQ 

Jupiter  Jovian Solar Ecliptic Jovian Solar Equatorial Jovian Solar Magnetic  JSE JSQ JSM 
[see F&H 2002, section 4.3.1] 
Saturn  Kronian Solar Ecliptic Kronian Solar Equatorial Kronian Solar Magnetic  KSE KSQ KSM 

Uranus  Uranian Solar Ecliptic Uranian Solar Equatorial Uranian Solar Magnetic  USE USQ USM 

Neptune  Neptunian Solar Ecliptic Neptunian Solar Equatorial Neptunian Solar Magnetic  NSE NSQ NSM 

2.7 Landers/rovers coordinates
This specific situation is expected to be correctly described in the PDS3/4 reference, TBC.
2.8 Solarterrestrial interactions
Derived from a SPASE document compiling various sources.
Acronym  Name  Description  Reference 

CGM  Corrected GeoMagnetic  A coordinate system from a spatial point with GEO radial distance and geomagnetic latitude and longitude, follow the epochappropriate IGRF/DGRF model field vector through to the point where the field line crosses the geomagnetic dipole equatorial plane. Then trace the dipole magnetic field vector Earthward from that point on the equatorial plane, in the same hemisphere as the original point, until the initial radial distance is reached. Designate the dipole latitude and longitude at that point as the CGM latitude and longitude of the original point.  (1,2,11) 
CAR  Carrington  A coordinate system which is centered at the Sun and is "fixed" with respect to the synodic rotation rate; the mean synodic value is about 27.2753 days. The Astronomical Almanac gives a value for Carrington longitude of 349.03 degrees at 0000 UT on 1 January 1995.  (1,11) 
DM  Dipole Meridian  A coordinate system centered at the observation point. Z axis is parallel to the Earth's dipole axis, positive northward. X is in the plane defined by Z and the line linking the observation point with the Earth's center. Y is positive eastward.  (1,3,11) 
GEI (or GCI)  Geocentric Equatorial Inertial  A coordinate system where the Z axis is along Earth's spin vector, positive northward. X axis points towards the first point of Aries (from the Earth towards the Sun at the vernal equinox).  (1,3,4,5,8,9,10,11) 
GEO  Geographic  geocentric corotating  A coordinate system where the Z axis is along Earth's spin vector, positive northward. X axis lies in Greenwich meridian, positive towards Greenwich.  (1,3,4,5,8,9,11) 
GSE  Geocentric Solar Ecliptic  A coordinate system where the X axis is from Earth to Sun. Z axis is normal to the ecliptic, positive northward.  (1,3,4,5,8,9,10,11) 
GSEQ  Geocentric Solar Equatorial  A coordinate system where the X axis is from Earth to Sun. Y axis is parallel to solar equatorial plane. Z axis is positive northward.  (1,3,9) 
GSM  Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric  A coordinate system where the X axis is from Earth to Sun, Z axis is northward in a plane containing the X axis and the geomagnetic dipole axis.  (1,3,4,5,9,10,11) 
HAE  Heliocentric Aries Ecliptic  A coordinate system where the Z axis is normal to the ecliptic plane, positive northward. X axis is positive towards the first point of Aries (from Earth to Sun at vernal equinox). Same as SE below.  (1,5,8,11,12) 
HCC  Heliocentric Cartesian  A 3D orthonormal coordinate system that is primarily intended to specify with two dimensions a point on the solar disk. The Z axis points toward the observer. The Y axis lies in the plane defined by the solar spin vector and the Z axis, positive northward. The X axis is perpendicular to the Y and Z axes, positive toward solar west. Standard representation for this system is via the point's x and y values, expressed either as physical distances or as fractions of the solar disk radius.  (1) 
HCD  Heliocentric of Date  (11)  
HCI  Heliographic Carrington Inertial  (1,8,11,12)  
HCR  Heliocentric Radial  A 3D orthonormal coordinate system that is primarily intended to specify with two dimensions a point on the solar disk. The Z axis points toward the observer. The Y axis lies in the plane defined by the solar spin vector and the Z axis, positive northward. The X axis is perpendicular to the Y and Z axes, positive toward solar west. Standard representation for this system is via the point's distance rho from the Z axis [Rho = SQRT(x**2 + y**2)] and its phase angle psi measured counterclockwise from the +Y axis [psi = arctan (y/x)]  (1) 
HEE  Heliocentric Earth Ecliptic  A coordinate system where the Z axis is normal to the ecliptic plane, positive northward. X axis points from Sun to Earth.  (1,5,8,11) 
HEEQ  Heliocentric Earth Equatorial  A coordinate system where the Z axis is normal to the solar equatorial plane, positive northward. X axis is generally Earthward in the plane defined by the Z axis and the SunEarth direction.  (1,5,8,11) 
HG (or HGC)  Heliographic  A heliocentric rotating coordinate system where the Z axis is normal to the solar equatorial plane, positive northward. X, Y axes rotate with a 25.38 day period. The zero longitude (X axis) is defined as the longitude that passed through the ascending node of the solar equator on the ecliptic plane on 1 January, 1854 at 12 UT.  (1,6,11,12) 
HGI  Heliographic Inertial  A heliocentric coordinate system where the Z axis is normal to the solar equatorial plane, positive northward. X axis is along the intersection line between solar equatorial and ecliptic planes. The X axis was positive at SE longitude of 74.367 deg on Jan 1, 1900. (See SE below.)  (1,6) 
HPC  Helioprojective Cartesian  A 3D orthonormal (lefthanded) coordinate system that is primarily intended to specify with two dimensions a point on the solar disk. The Z axis points from the observer to the center of the solar disk. The Y axis lies in the plane defined by the solar spin vector and the Z axis, positive northward. The X axis is perpendicular to the Y and Z axes, positive toward solar west. Given as the distance between the observer and the center of the solar disk, the standard representation of an (x,y) point on the solar disk is via the point's longitude angle [arctan (x/d)] and latitude angle [arctan y/d].  (1) 
HPR  Helioprojective Radial  A 3D orthonormal (lefthanded) coordinate system that is primarily intended to specify with two dimensions a point on the solar disk. The Z axis points from the observer to the center of the solar disk. The Y axis lies in the plane defined by the solar spin vector and the Z axis, positive northward. The X axis is perpendicular to the Y and Z axes, positive toward solar west. Given as the distance between the observer and the center of the solar disk, the standard representation for this system of an (x,y) point on the solar disk is via the point's latitude angle theta {= arctan [SQRT(x**2 + y**2)]/d]} or equivalent declination parameter delta (= theta  90 deg), and its phase angle psi as measured counter clockwise from the +Y axis [psi = arctan (y/x)].  (1) 
HS  Heliocentric Solar  X = Intersection between solar equator and solar central meridian as seen from Earth. Z = North Pole of solar rotation axis.  (10) 
HSEa  Heliocentric Solar Ecliptic (Inertial)  X = First point of Aries (Vernal Equinox, i.e. to the Sun from Earth in the first day of Spring). Z = Ecliptic North Pole  (10) 
HSEb  Heliocentric Solar Ecliptic (Earth Oriented)  X = SunEarth Line. Z = Ecliptic North Pole  (10) 
J2000  J2000  An astronomical coordinate system which uses the mean equator and equinox of Julian date 2451545.0 TT (Terrestrial Time), or January 1, 2000, noon TT. (aka J2000) to define a celestial reference frame.  (1) 
LGM  Local Geomagnetic  A coordinate system used mainly for Earth surface or near Earth surface magnetic field data. X axis northward from observation point in a geographic meridian. Z axis downward towards Earth's center. In this system, H (total horizontal component) = SQRT (Bx^2 + By^2) and D (declination angle) = arctan (By/Bx)  (1) 
MAG  Geomagnetic  geocentric  Z axis is parallel to the geomagnetic dipole axis, positive north. X is in the plane defined by the Z axis and the Earth's rotation axis. If N is a unit vector from the Earth's center to the north geographic pole, the signs of the X and Y axes are given by Y = N x Z, X = Y x Z.  (1,3,4,5,11) 
MFA  Magnetic Field Aligned  A coordinate system spacecraftcentered system with Z in the direction of the ambient magnetic field vector. X is in the plane defined by Z and the spacecraftSun line, positive sunward.  (1,3) 
RTN  Radial Tangential Normal  Typically centered at a spacecraft. Used for IMF and plasma V vectors. R (radial) axis is radially away from the Sun, T (tangential) axis is normal to the plane formed by R and the Sun's spin vector, positive in the direction of planetary motion. N (normal) is R x T.  (1,10,11,12) 
SC  Spacecraft  A coordinate system defined by the spacecraft geometry and/or spin. Often has Z axis parallel to spacecraft spin vector. X and Y axes may or may not corotate with the spacecraft. See SR and SR2 below.  (1) 
SE  Solar Ecliptic  A heliocentric coordinate system where the Z axis is normal to the ecliptic plane, positive northward. X axis is positive towards the first point of Aries (from Earth to Sun at vernal equinox). Same as HAE above.  (1,6) 
SM  Solar Magnetic  A geocentric coordinate system where the Z axis is northward along Earth's dipole axis, X axis is in plane of z axis and EarthSun line, positive sunward.  (1,3,4,5,9,11) 
SR  Spin Reference  A special case of a Spacecraft (SC) coordinate system for a spinning spacecraft. Z is parallel to the spacecraft spin vector. X and Y rotate with the spacecraft.  (1,3) 
SR2  Spin Reference 2  A special case of a Spacecraft (SC) coordinate system for a spinning spacecraft. Z is parallel to the spacecraft spin vector. X is in the plane defined by Z and the spacecraftSun line, positive sunward.  (1,3) 
SSE  Spacecraft Solar Ecliptic  A coordinate system used for deep space spacecraft, for example Helios.  X axis from spacecraft to Sun. Z axis normal to ecliptic plane, positive northward. Note: Angle between normals to ecliptic and to Helios orbit plane ~ 0.25 deg.  (1,11) 
SSE_L  Selenocentric Solar Ecliptic  The X axis points from the center of the Earth's moon to the sun, the Z axis is normal to the ecliptic plane, positive northward. And the Y axis completes the righthanded set of axes.  (1) 
SCOP  Spacecraft Orbit Plane  A coordinate system where X lies in the plane normal to and in the direction of motion of the spacecraft, Z is normal to this plane and Y completes the triad in a righthanded coordinate system.  (1) 
VDH  Vertical Dusk Horizontal system  The Vaxis is the outwards local vertical, to the point of observation. The Haxis is parallel to the horizontal local plane, positive to the North. The VH plane is a geographic meridian plane. The Daxis is azimuthal, eastwards.  (3) 
WGS84  World Geodetic System 1984  The World Geodetic System (WGS) defines a reference frame for the earth, for use in geodesy and navigation. The WGS84 uses the zero meridian as defined by the Bureau International de l'Heure.  (1,9) 
[2] http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/vitmo/cgmm_des.html
[3] http://cdpp2.cnes.fr/cdpp/data/documents/PLASLOROCOTLIB00428CET/00428.pdf and software libraries in IDL (tar) or Fortran (tar)
[4] C.T. Russell, (1971) "Geophysical Coordinate Transformations", Cosmic. Electrodyn. 2, 184196. URL: http://wwwssc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/gct1.html
[5] M.A. Hapgood, (1992) "Space Physics Coordinate Transformations: A User Guide", Planet. Space Sci. 40, 711717.
M.A. Hapgood, (1997) "Corrigendum to Space Physics Coordinate Transformations: A User Guide", Planet. Space Sci. 45, 1047.
[6] http://cohoweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/helios/coor_des.html
[7] http://sspg1.bnsc.rl.ac.uk/SEG/Coordinates/refs.htm
[8] http://stereossc.nascom.nasa.gov/coordinates_explanation.shtml
[9] http://www.spenvis.oma.be/help/background/coortran/coortran.html
[10] http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ASC/coordinate_systems.html
[11] M.Fraenz and D.Harper, Heliospheric Coordinate Systems, Planet. Space Sci., 50, 217233 (Feb 2002). URL: http://www.mps.mpg.de/homes/fraenz/systems/
[12] http://heliovo.eu/documents/public/HELIO_Coordinates_100322.pdf
[13] Thompson, W. T. Coordinate systems for solar image data. A&A 449, 791–803 (2006). http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/00046361:20054262
2.9 Jovian Systems
from Fraenz and Harper (2002):
Abbrev  Name  Description 

JUP_I  Jovian System I  Mean atmospheric equatorial rotation. +Z axis: pole of rotation. Rotation speed: 877.900 degree/day 
JUP_II  Jovian System II  Mean atmospheric polar rotation. +Z axis: pole of rotation. Rotation speed: 870.270 degree/day 
JUP_III  Jovian System III  Magnetospheric rotation. +Z axis: pole of rotation. Rotation speed: 870.53 degree/day 
JUP_III_sun  Jovian System III, fix Sun Line  +Zaxis: pole of rotation. +Yaxis: crossproduct of +Zaxis and vector (Jupiter–Sun). 
JUP_D  Jovian Magnetic Dipole System  +Zaxis: dipole axis defined by its System III latitude and longitude: lat_D = (90° − 9.8°); lambda_D = 200° +X axis: intersection of System III prime meridian and magnetic equator. 
Jovian Centrifugal System  +Z axis: centrifugal axis defined by its System III latitude and longitude: lat_C = (90° − 7.0°); lambda_C = 200°. +X axis: intersection of System III prime meridian and centrifugal equator.  
Magnetic Dipole System x Sun line  +Z axis: dipole axis. +Y axis: crossproduct of +Z axis and vector (Jupiter–Sun).  
Magnetic Dipole rthph System  +Xaxis: vector (JupiterS=C) +Zaxis: cross product of (dipole axis) and +Xaxis. This system depends on the S=Cposition. 
2.10 SPICE Builtin Frames
From SPICE Ref Manual:
 Inertial Frames (ftp://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/naif/toolkit_docs/FORTRAN/req/frames.html#Appendix.%20``Built%20in''%20Inertial%20Reference%20Frames)
 IAU Body fixed frames (ftp://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/naif/toolkit_docs/FORTRAN/req/frames.html#Appendix.%20``Built%20in''%20PCKBased%20IAU%20BodyFixed%20Reference%20Frames)
List of IAUBodyFixed reference frames: IAU_ADRASTEA, IAU_AMALTHEA, IAU_ANANKE, IAU_ARIEL, IAU_ATLAS, IAU_BELINDA, IAU_BENNU, IAU_BIANCA, IAU_BORRELLY, IAU_CALLIRRHOE, IAU_CALLISTO, IAU_CALYPSO, IAU_CARME, IAU_CERES, IAU_CHALDENE, IAU_CHARON, IAU_CORDELIA, IAU_CRESSIDA, IAU_DAVIDA, IAU_DEIMOS, IAU_DESDEMONA, IAU_DESPINA, IAU_DIONE, IAU_EARTH, IAU_ELARA, IAU_ENCELADUS, IAU_EPIMETHEUS, IAU_ERINOME, IAU_EROS, IAU_EUROPA, IAU_GALATEA, IAU_GANYMEDE, IAU_GASPRA, IAU_HARPALYKE, IAU_HELENE, IAU_HIMALIA, IAU_HYPERION, IAU_IAPETUS, IAU_IDA, IAU_IO, IAU_IOCASTE, IAU_ISONOE, IAU_ITOKAWA, IAU_JANUS, IAU_JULIET, IAU_JUPITER, IAU_KALYKE, IAU_LARISSA, IAU_LEDA, IAU_LUTETIA, IAU_LYSITHEA, IAU_MAGACLITE, IAU_MARS, IAU_MERCURY, IAU_METIS, IAU_MIMAS, IAU_MIRANDA, IAU_MOON, IAU_NAIAD, IAU_NEPTUNE, IAU_NEREID, IAU_OBERON, IAU_OPHELIA, IAU_PALLAS, IAU_PAN, IAU_PANDORA, IAU_PASIPHAE, IAU_PHOBOS, IAU_PHOEBE, IAU_PLUTO, IAU_PORTIA, IAU_PRAXIDIKE, IAU_PROMETHEUS, IAU_PROTEUS, IAU_PUCK, IAU_RHEA, IAU_ROSALIND, IAU_SATURN, IAU_SINOPE, IAU_STEINS, IAU_SUN, IAU_TAYGETE, IAU_TELESTO, IAU_TEMPEL_1, IAU_TETHYS, IAU_THALASSA, IAU_THEBE, IAU_THEMISTO, IAU_TITAN, IAU_TITANIA, IAU_TRITON, IAU_UMBRIEL, IAU_URANUS, IAU_VENUS, IAU_VESTA.
2.11 Galilean Moon Frames
 Source = PDS Data_set_id = GOJPOS6SCTRAJMOONCOORDSV1.0
 Current URL: https://pds.nasa.gov/dsview/pds/viewDataset.jsp?dsid=GOJPOS6SCTRAJMOONCOORDSV1.0
Two coordinate systems are provided:
 SPRH (Satellite centered planetocentric, righthanded),
 PhiO (Satellite centered inertial PhiOmega coordinates),
Distances from the satellites are measured in satellite radii. The radii values used for the various satellites are listed in the following Table:
Moon  Radius (km) 

Amalthea  86.2 
Io  1818 
Europa  1560 
Ganymede  2634 
Callisto  2409 
Satellite centered coordinate systems names are preceded by the first letter in the name of the satellite, in order to indicate which satellite is used as the center. In order words, PhiO coordinates are called EPhiO at Europa and CPhiO at Callisto
SPRH (Satellite centered planetocentric, righthanded)
This coordinate system is the basic J2000 definition of planetocentric coordinates, as applied to each of the satellites. In it's Cartesian form the coordinate system has its Zaxis along the satellite axis of rotation positive in the direction of angular momentum, the Xaxis in the equatorial plane in the direction of the prime meridian, with the Yaxis completing the righthanded set. The coordinate system rotates with the satellite (bodyfixed).
All of the SPRH data in this data set are based on the International Astronomical Union (IAU) definitions of the satellite axes orientations and rotation rates from the Report of the IAU/IAG/COSPAR Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites: 1994 [IAU1994]. The specific orbit elements for each satellite are summarized in the following Table:
Satellite  Axis orientation J2000  Prime Meridian*  

Right Ascension  Declination  Constant  Rate  
Amalthea  268.05  +64.49  231.67  +722.6314560 
Io  268.05  +64.50  200.39  +203.4889538 
Europa  268.08  +64.51  35.67  +101.3747235 
Ganymede  268.20  +64.57  44.04  +50.3176081 
Callisto  268.72  +64.83  259.73  +21.5710715 
* PM = const + rate*d where d is days after the J2000 epoch.
PhiO (Satellite centered inertial PhiOmega coordinates)
The basis vectors of the inertial PhiOmega coordinate systems are defined at an epoch time that is set at the time of spacecraft closest approach to the satellite. The Xdirection is defined to be in the direction of corotation, at the center of the satellite at the epoch time (System III Phi direction [DESSLER1983]). The Zaxis is defined to be orthogonal to the X direction such that the XZ plane contains the Jupiter spin axis (Omega), positive in the direction of angular momentum. The Yaxis is defined to complete the righthanded set. Since the jovian satellites all lie very close to the jovian equatorial plane, it is often convenient to visualize this coordinate system as follows: X lies in the direction of plasma flow, Y points towards Jupiter, and Z points 'up'.
2.12 Anything else?
Comets maybe?
6 Comments
Angelo Pio Rossi
we are starting to have planetary coordinates in the official OGC Resolver (opengis.net) see https://github.com/planetserver/planetarycrs there are some naming issues, but the above could be helpful, e.g. Stéphane Erard Trent Hare Chiara Marmo
Baptiste Cecconi
Yes, we have to check this.
By the way, we will restart activity on that topic with Steve Joy (NASA/PDS/PPI and UCLA), who is now cochair of the IVOA Solar System Interest Group. Our goal is to:
Stéphane Erard
The IAU WGCCRE proposes (2018) to refer to historical / past version of IAU frames by using the bibcode or DOI of the relevant IAU WGCCRE report; they also propose to use this convention for frames not defined by the WG but publised/used in research papers.
Plus, codes such as IAU2000 are also commonly used in a generic sense, including in GDAL (this actually refers to a set of resolutions taken that year and affecting the standards, e.g. planetocentric conventions have eastward longitudes)
There is an IAU sotfware lib handling projections and computations: http://www.iausofa.org/
Baptiste Cecconi
Note for future: make sure to check planetocentric/graphic and heliocentric/graphic definitions (are they consistent different?)
Trent Hare
Note: current MapaPlanet link " http://www.mapaplanet.org/explorer/help/data_set.html" has been retired. The new site can be linked to: https://www.mapaplanet.org/
I am still digesting this page  lots of into.
Note: JeanChristophe Malapert (CNES), for the new 2015 WKT definitions, revamped whole code base, called create_IAU2000.py, which generates these. This code is still in review. The code now does a much better job at differentiating ocentric/ographic latitude systems and longitude direction (East/West  depends on the rotation direction). Now whether many applications (e.g. existing GIS apps) will easily support West is doubtful. We are hopeful that with updates to Proj"5" in GDAL (currently under way), planetary projections will be better supported (in regards to the latitude systems).
updated code: https://github.com/USGSAstrogeology/GDAL_scripts/blob/master/OGC_IAU2000_WKT_v2/Source_Python/create_IAU2000.py
table which lists NAIF codes and IAU 2015 standards as published in the 2018 paper which the code uses: https://github.com/USGSAstrogeology/GDAL_scripts/blob/master/OGC_IAU2000_WKT_v2/naifcodes_radii_m_wAsteroids_IAU2015.csv
2018 IAU paper (for 2015 codes): https://github.com/USGSAstrogeology/GDAL_scripts/blob/master/OGC_IAU2000_WKT_v2/Docs/IAU2015_Archinaletal2018.pdf
Baptiste Cecconi
Just found an extra source of space physics coordinate systems (nothing new), but with python implementation of transformations:
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